1．When my family and I had just arrived in China，we went looking for a good place to eat in Beijing.
2．Tired，hungry，and not knowing a word of Chinese，we had no idea how to order，so the chef just began filling our table with the best food we had ever eaten.
3．A Sichuan restaurant had been recommended to us by a friend，and finally，we found it.
4．Prior to coming to China，my only experience with Chinese cooking was in America，with Chinese food that had been changed to suit American tastes.
He had already been to New York earlier in the week. 本周早些时候他去过纽约。
At that time we hadn’t met her. 那时我们还没有见到她。
肯定回答：Yes，主语＋had. / 否定回答：No，主语＋hadn’t.
—Had you visited here before? ——你以前参观过这里吗？
—Yes，I had./No，I hadn’t. ——是，我去过。/没有，我以前没有去过。
Where had you been before you came here? 你来这里前还去过哪儿？
By the end of last year all the preparatory work had been done. 到去年底为止，所有的准备工作都完成了。
①He ______________(work) in the store for five years before he moved here.
②When I got to the station，the train ______________ (leave)．
③The task ______________(finish) before 12：00 yesterday.
1.had worked 2.had left 3.had been finished
By nine o’clock last night，we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.到昨晚9点钟，我们已经收到200张飞船发来的图片。
I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came. 当车来的时候，我在车站已等了20分钟。
He said he had worked in that factory since 1949. 他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。
Mr.Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine. 史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。
I didn’t know a thing about the verbs，for I had not studied my lesson. 我对动词一无所知，因为我没有好好学习功课。
I returned the book that I had borrowed. 我已归还了我借的书。
She found the key that she had lost. 她丢失的钥匙找到了。
He said that he had known her well. 他说他很熟悉她。
I thought I had sent the letter a week before. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。
6．状语从句：在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中，发生在前，用过去完成时；发生在后，用一般过去时。如：when，before，after，as soon as，till/until引导的复合句。
When I woke up，it had already stopped raining. 我醒来时雨已停了。
She didn’t go to bed until she had finished her work. 她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。
After he arrived in England，Marx worked hard to improve his English. 马克思到达英格兰之后，努力提高他的英语水平。
They had wanted to help but could not get there in time. 他们本来打算去帮忙，但没有及时赶到那里。
We had hoped to be able to come and see you. 我们本来希望能来看看你。
8．过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…，no sooner…than …，it was the first (second，etc) time (that)．..等固定句型中。
Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him. 他刚开始演讲，听众就打断了他。
No sooner had he arrived than he went away again. 他刚到就又走了。
It was the third time that he had been out of work that year. 这是他那一年第三次失业了。
①We ______________(build) five new buildings by the end of last year.
②I could see from her face that she ______________(receive) some good news.
③He said he ______________(be) there before.
④We realized we ______________(lose) our way.
⑤We ______________(hope) that you would be able to visit us.
1.had built 2.had received 3.had been 4.had lost 5.had hoped
比较：I have learned 1，000 English words so far. 到目前为止，我已经学会了1 000个英语单词。
I had learned 1，000 English words till then. 到那时为止，我已经学会了1 000个英语单词。
—I’m sorry to keep you waiting. ——对不起，让你久等了。
—Oh，not at all. I have been here only a few minutes. ——没什么，我只等了几分钟。
①The concert ______________(start)．We have to look for our seats in the dark.
②You’re too late；the train ______________ (leave)．
③He ______________ (teach) English for twenty years when he retired.
④They ______________ (get) everything ready before I came.
1.has started 2.has left 3.had taught 4.had got
(1)肯定结构：主语＋ had been done ＋其他成分。
(2)否定结构：主语＋ had not been done ＋其他成分。
(3)疑问句结构：had ＋主语＋ been done ＋其他成分？
疑问词＋ had ＋主语＋ been done ＋其他成分？
By the time he got to the school，the first class had been finished. 当他到达学校时，第一节课已经结束了。
The classroom hadn’t been cleaned before the teacher came. 老师来之前，教室还没有打扫过。
How many buildings had been destroyed when the earthquake ended? 地震结束时有多少建筑物被毁？
As the assignment had been done，he went on to search the Internet. 任务完成后，他继续上网搜索。
He did what he had been told to. 他做了别人叫他做的事。
另：当从句由after，before，when或 as soon as引导时，主句和从句都可以用一般过去时。
When he arrived，he called her. 他到达时，给她打了电话。
They locked the door before they left. 在离开前，他们把门锁上了。
They said the production costs had been reduced. 他们说生产成本已经降低了。
The girl was reminded that her homework had not been handed in. 那个女孩被提醒她的家庭作业还没有交。
The media reported more than 1，000 people had been killed in the earthquake.有1 000多人在地震中丧生。
例如：This polluted river has been cleaned. 这条被污染了的河流已被净化。
例如：He said this book had been translated into Japanese. 他说这本书已被译成日语。
①The earthquake ______________(predict) several days before.
②The device ______________ (use) operationally some months previously.
③Our classroom ______________ (clean)．You needn’t clean it now.
④The child ______________ (take) care of by grandma all these years.
1.had been predicted 2.had been used 3.has been cleaned 4. has been taken
1．I surfed the net and ______________(see) an online advertisement，so I sent an email，saying that I wanted the job.
2．The universities in Britain ______________ (take) in many students from China and other Asian countries over the past few years.
3．The interviewer was interested in the grades I ______________ (get) in the exams.
4．By the time we got a report，the firemen ______________ (put) out the fire in the bar already.
5．We’ll have to wait in line. The fastfood restaurant ______________ (be) shorthanded for weeks.
6．She ______________ (want) to help you but she had no time then.
7．All the film tickets ______________(sell) out when I got to the cinema.
8．The wallet______________ (wrap) up in newspaper and it contained half the money he had lost.
9．By the end of that day，most of the inhabitants______________ (leave) their homes.
10．It was the third time that he ______________ (make) the same mistake.
1．她告诉我她当空中乘务员好几年了。 She told me that ______________ for quite a few years.
2．她说她已来过上海。 She said that ______________ Shanghai.
3．我们到日本前学过一点日语。 We ______________ before we came to Japan.
4．我不想看那部戏剧，因为我已经看过了。 I didn’t want to see the play because ______________．
5．到上学期末，我们已读了十篇短篇小说。By the end of last term ______________．
6．这是他第一次输掉比赛。 It was the first time ______________．
7．投资黄金一直被认为是万无一失的赚钱方法。 Investment in gold ______________ a sure route to make money.
8．经过短暂的步行，我们到达尸体被人发现的地方。 After a short walk，we arrived at the place where ______________.
9．然而，几天之后，有人告诉他说弄错了。However，a few days later，he was told that ______________．
10．我半夜回来时，她还没有做完工作。When I came back at midnight ______________
1.saw 2.have taken 3.had got 4.had put 5.has been
6.had wanted 7.had been sold 8.had been wrapped 9.had left 10.had made
1.she had been an air hostess 2. she had been to 3.had studied a little Japanese
4.I had already seen it 5.we had read ten short stories 6.he had lost the game
7.has been seen as 8.the body had been found 9.a mistake had been made
10.she still hadn’t finished the work