1.Oliver believes that with a million­pound bank note a man could live a month in London.

2.Young man,would you step inside a moment,please?

3May we ask what you’re doing in this country and what your plans are?

4.I can’t say that I have any plans.

5.Anyway,I didn’t dare to try again.

6.You mustn’t worry about that.

7.If you’ll excuse me,I ought to be on my way.



(1)在形式上,情态动词没有实义动词的各种变化,只有could,would,had to,might等几个过去式,其他情态动词如must、ought to等的过去式皆与现在式同形。




cancannot/ can notcan’tshallshall notshan’t
couldcould notcouldn’tcouldshould notshouldn’t
maymay not/willwill notwon’t
mightmight notmightn’twouldwould notwouldn’t
mustmust notmustn’tneedneed notneedn’t
daredare notdaren’tought toought not tooughtn’t to


表示能力The little boy can read and write. I could feel the ground shaking.
表示可能和推测Those of you who are familiar with the game will know this.
They made a bet which would settle their argument.
Oh,you must be Sylvia’s husband.
It may seem lucky to you but not to me.
That might not be true.
There ought to be enough space for all of us.
表示许可或禁止You can go off duty now.
You can’t open it until two o’clock.
You may not smoke here.
You shouldn’t take her help for granted.
You mustn’t do that.
表示发出指示或提出请求Will you please take her to the library?
Could you offer me work here?
Can I ask a question?
May we ask what you’re doing in this country?
表示提出帮助或发出邀请Will you stay for lunch?
Wouldn’t you like to come with me?
May I help you?
Shall I put it in a box?
表示提出建议You could ask the teacher for help.
You should write him a letter. The cookies Susan made are delicious
,you ought to try some.
表示愿望Would you recommend the play to other people?
I would like to know the date.
I’d love to go to your birthday party.
I’d rather not pay you now.
表示义务和需要You must come at once.
We have to wear uniforms at school.
I ought to be on my way.



(1)①can表示可能性时,指的是理论上的可能,它通常不用来表示某事实际发生的可能性或真实性。如:Accidents can happen. Anybody can make mistakes.


We may spend our summer holidays in Hangzhou this year.

Will you answer the telephone?It could/may/might be your mother.


Could I use your telephone?

—Yes,please go ahead.

在过去时态的肯定句中需要某种条件或努力做成某事,我们要用was/were able to而不能用could如:

It was a holiday and the children were able to go to the seaside.

The girl worked hard so she was able to pass the final test.

(2)musthave to都可以表示必须的意思,但要注意以下两点区别。

①must只有现在时,而have to有现在时、过去时和将来时。如:

We must work hard,or we’ll fail in the examination.

Years ago,the poor girl had to leave school for lack of money.

must表示主观看法,have to则侧重于客观需要。如:

We must be strict with ourselves in everything.

In cities with many cars,some people have to wear masks.


Shall she go to the concert with us this evening?(征求意见)

You shall go to the front at once.(命令)

Don’t worry.You shall get the answer this very afternoon.(允诺)

He shall be sorry one day.I tell you.(警告)

Nothing shall stop us from fighting against pollution.(决心)


If it will rain tomorrow,we shall not go to the mountain village.(误)

If it rains tomorrow,we shall not go to the mountain village.(正)


If you will listen to me,I’ll give you some advice on how to learn English.

If you will come this way,the manager will meet you.


The American friends should be here now.

(6)ought to与should意思接近,大多数情况下二者可以互换,但是should谈的是自己的主观看法,ought to则更多反映客观情况,在谈到法律、义务和规定时使用。如:

We should/ought to help each other and learn from each other in our work.

She is your mother,so you ought to support her.

We ought to go and see Mary tomorrow,but I don’t think we will.



a.How dare you say I’m unfair?

b.He daren’t speak English before such a crowd,dare he?

c.If he dare break the rule,he will be punished.

need表示需要必须,作情态动词用时,仅用于否定句或疑问句、条件从句中。意为……必要。在肯定句中一般用must,have to,ought to或should代替。

a.You needn’t come so early.

b.—Need I finish the work today?

—Yes,you must./No,you needn’t.

c.If you need go there,please let me know.

d. We must/need to report the matter to the boss immediately.


a.I dare to swim across the river.

b.He doesn’t dare(to)answer.

c.We need time and money.

d.The dining room needs/wants/requires cleaning every day. (主动表被动的用法)

=The dining room needs/wants/requires to be cleaned every day.

e.Does he need to take the medicine three times a day?


1、对现在或将来的推测:must 肯定、can’t/couldn’t 不可能、may/might 可能;(could/might不表示过去,只是相对于can/may,语气更弱一些。)

The mathematics teacher must be in the office now.

There is no light in the room. She can’t be at home now.

If I’m busy, I may not go.

2、对现在进行情况的推测:must 肯定、can’t不可能、may 可能 + be doing

The girl is not out. She must be doing her homework now.

He may be waiting for you at the cinema.

Ling Ling can’t be playing the piano now. She went to the bookshop with her father a few minutes ago.



The children must have watered the tomatoes yesterday.

The minister must have arrived in Shanghai.

I must have forgotten to tell you.

(2)“should/ought to+have+done” 表示”本该做,而实际上却没有做的事“,含有责怪的意思;用于否定句”shouldn’t/ought not to+have+done”中,表示”本来不该做,但实际上做了“,也是含有责怪的意思。

You should have told her about it the day before yesterday.

You shouldn’t have told such a lie.

3“may/mighthavedone”表示或许已经…”“may/might nothavedone”表示或许还没有…”

It’s too late. I think he may have gone to bed.

He may not have gone home. He might have gone somewhere else.


Could she have heard of him?  —Yes, she must have heard of him.

He couldn’t possibly have said why. 他肯定说不出个所以然来。

You could have done better, but you were too careless.


You needn’t have taken a taxi here, for it was very near to my house.

You needn’t have woken him up at 5 o’clock. It’s too early.


1、can but 有“只能,只好,至多不过”之意。

I don’t think we’ll succeed. Still, we can but try. 我想我们不会成功,但是不妨试一试。

With no key on him,he can but wait outside the door. 他没带钥匙,只好在门外等。

2、cannot help but 不得不,后接动词原形。

Due to the present price level,we cannot help but adjust our offer. 由于目前的价格水平,我们不得不调整报价。

3、cannot help意为“不禁,禁不住”,后跟名词、代词、doing 或 one’s doing

I cannot help missing that girl.我禁不住思念那个女孩。

4、cannot…too…表示“无论怎样……都不过分”,“越……越好”。有时 cannot 可用 can never 替代。

We cannot urge upon you too strongly the importance of this matter. 对此事,我们无论怎样向你强调其重要性都不会过分。

You can never be too careful when crossing the street.你过马路时怎么小心也不过分。



Children can often get ill suddenly.

Certain things in the home can be dangerous,especially if you have young children.



Can/Could it be cloudy tomorrow()

May/Might it be cloudy tomorrow?(误)


④should/ought to+动词原形:想必现在/将来会……

The dinner should/ought to be ready now.

He should/ought to ring up this afternoon.


Try your best,and your wish will come true.




1.我们必须努力学习,否则就不会通过考试。We _____________________,or we’ll fail in the examination.


The girl worked hard so she _____________________________ the final examination.

3.你怎么能捉弄我呢?How can you _____________________________ on me?


—Must we sort these toys today?             —No,_____________________________

5.我们应当尊重我们的老师和父母。We _____________________________ our teachers and parents.


1.—Can’t you stay a little longer?

—It’s getting late. I really __________ go now. My daughter is at home alone.

2.—Shall I inform him of the change of the schedule right now?

—I am afraid you __________,in case he comes late for the meeting.

3.He _______ sleep,although he tried to,when he got on such a hunt for an idea until he had caught it.

4.You __________ park here!It’s an emergency exit.

5.Doctors say that exercise is important for health,but it __________ be regular exercise.

6.The police still haven’t found the lost child,but they’re doing all they __________.

7.—Why are your eyes so red?You __________ have slept well last night.

—Yeah,I stayed up late writing a report.

8.According to the newly­made traffic regulation,whoever drives through red lights __________ be fined at least 200 dollars.

9.George__________ have gone too far.His coffee is still warm.

10.You __________ be Carol.You haven’t changed a bit after all these years.


A long time ago,there was a woman,1. __________ had two children. One was called Tom,and the other was named John. One day the woman was very puzzled(疑惑的).She had some cakes in the kitchen but every night one of her children 2. __________ eat them. She thought it 3. __________ be Tom because he was very tall 4. __________ John was very short. But she wasn’t sure. The woman had an idea. She put the cakes on a high shelf.  The next day,someone 5. __________ (eat) some of the cakes. “Ah!”said the woman.“It 6. __________ be John. He’s too short!It 7. __________ be Tom!”She was very angry with Tom,8. __________ (think),“He 9. __________ be punished for what he had done!”Poor Tom.  In fact,he hadn’t eaten the cakes. It was John. How?Can you guess?Yes,he 10. __________ have used a chair!




1.We must work hard,                        

2. she was able to pass the final examination.

3.How can you play a trick on me?       

4. —No,you needn’t/don’t have to.

5.We should respect our teachers and parents.


1. I really must go now.

2.—I am afraid you must,

3.He couldn’t sleep,

4.You mustn’t park here!

5. but it must be regular exercise.

6. but they’re doing all they can.

7. You can’t have slept well last night.

8. shall be fined at least 200 dollars.

9.George can’t have gone too far.

10.You must be Carol.


1.who 2.would 3.might 4.while 5.ate(eat) 6.can’t 7.must 9.shall 10.must


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